UR71 Gate to Tunnels of Northern Lines
Posted on January 4, 2016 / 771
Zone : Upper Rock
poi type : Gate
Location : Gibraltar

This metal gate, with adjacent guard house, would appear to date from the Victorian period.  This entrance allows access to the Kings Lines and then through to the Queen Lines.  The Kings LInes were built after the Great Siege 1779 to 1983.

Defences were built along the Norther Lines prior to the arrival of the British and a 1627 map by Don Luis Bravo de Acuña, which shows a parapet following an upper entrance to the City. Subseuqnetly this was changed to a more erratic course leading from the Landport, Gibraltar’s main land entrance, to the Round Tower, a fortification at their western end.

A 1704 map by Johannes Kip calls the Lines the “Communication Line of the Round Tower”.

In 1704, an Anglo-Dutch force captured Gibraltar in the name of Charles, Archduke of Austria who claimed the crown of Spain during the War of the Spanish Succession. The Lines were named after him. They saw use during the Twelfth Siege of Gibraltar (1704–5), when the Spanish and their French allies succeeded in breaching the defences but were repelled; during the Thirteenth Siege (1727), when they were bombarded by the Spanish; and during the Great Siege (1779–83), when they were again under Spanish bombardment.

During the tenure of William Green as Gibraltar’s Senior Engineer from 1761–83, the Lines were repaired, improved and fortified, and the cliffs below were scarped to make them impossible to climb. Facing west towards the Bay of Gibraltar, they were intended to make it possible to enfilade any attacking force trying to reach the gates of Gibraltar; they are connected to the Queen’s Lines via a communication gallery completed on 13 September 1782.

Following the Great Siege, the British dug a tunnel called the Hanover Gallery to connect the King’s Lines to the Landport near No. 3 Castle Battery. A communication trench was also dug to the nearby Prince’s Lines. Behind the King’s Lines, the British dug a tunnel, called the King’s Gallery, which ran parallel with the Lines to link them to the Queen’s Lines and could be used as a bombproof shelter.

 

Together with the Landport Front defences, the three sets of Lines constituted such a formidable obstacle that the Spanish called the landward approach to Gibraltar el boca de fuego, the “mouth of fire”.[5] A British clergyman, William Robertson, recorded his impressions of the Lines from his visit there in 1841:

 

The lower lines consist of two lines of excavations, one above the other, communicating by subterranean passages and stairs. They are much shorter than the upper lines, and as excavations less remarkable, but as batteries they are far more formidable, and are considered exquisite specimens of fortification. The batteries here are not subterranean, like this in the upper lines, but stand out from the face of the rock; but the communications are chiefly excavated through the rock, in which there is also hollowed out a spacious hall for a mess-room, and, in fact, a complete barrack for the soldiers.

UR71 Gate to Tunnels of Northern Lines
This metal gate, with adjacent guard house, would appear to date from the Victorian period.  This entrance allows access to the Kings Lines and then through to the Queen Lines.  The Kings LInes were built after the Great Siege 1779 to 1983.

Defences were built along the Norther Lines prior to the arrival of the British and a 1627 map by Don Luis Bravo de Acuña, which shows a parapet following an upper entrance to the City. Subseuqnetly this was changed to a more erratic course leading from the Landport, Gibraltar’s main land entrance, to the Round Tower, a fortification at their western end.

A 1704 map by Johannes Kip calls the Lines the “Communication Line of the Round Tower”.

In 1704, an Anglo-Dutch force captured Gibraltar in the name of Charles, Archduke of Austria who claimed the crown of Spain during the War of the Spanish Succession. The Lines were named after him. They saw use during the Twelfth Siege of Gibraltar (1704–5), when the Spanish and their French allies succeeded in breaching the defences but were repelled; during the Thirteenth Siege (1727), when they were bombarded by the Spanish; and during the Great Siege (1779–83), when they were again under Spanish bombardment.

During the tenure of William Green as Gibraltar’s Senior Engineer from 1761–83, the Lines were repaired, improved and fortified, and the cliffs below were scarped to make them impossible to climb. Facing west towards the Bay of Gibraltar, they were intended to make it possible to enfilade any attacking force trying to reach the gates of Gibraltar; they are connected to the Queen’s Lines via a communication gallery completed on 13 September 1782.

Following the Great Siege, the British dug a tunnel called the Hanover Gallery to connect the King’s Lines to the Landport near No. 3 Castle Battery. A communication trench was also dug to the nearby Prince’s Lines. Behind the King’s Lines, the British dug a tunnel, called the King’s Gallery, which ran parallel with the Lines to link them to the Queen’s Lines and could be used as a bombproof shelter.

 

Together with the Landport Front defences, the three sets of Lines constituted such a formidable obstacle that the Spanish called the landward approach to Gibraltar el boca de fuego, the “mouth of fire”.[5] A British clergyman, William Robertson, recorded his impressions of the Lines from his visit there in 1841:

 

The lower lines consist of two lines of excavations, one above the other, communicating by subterranean passages and stairs. They are much shorter than the upper lines, and as excavations less remarkable, but as batteries they are far more formidable, and are considered exquisite specimens of fortification. The batteries here are not subterranean, like this in the upper lines, but stand out from the face of the rock; but the communications are chiefly excavated through the rock, in which there is also hollowed out a spacious hall for a mess-room, and, in fact, a complete barrack for the soldiers.

UR71 Gate to Tunnels of Northern Lines
Zone : Upper Rock
poi type : Gate
Location : Gibraltar
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